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What is DuoDote used for?
Pralidoxime reverses muscle weakness or paralysis caused by a poison or nerve agent. DuoDote is a combination medicine used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas.
What does nerve gas do to a person?
Nerve gas causes poisoning by damaging nerves that help you breathe, move, and digest food. Nerve gas is a chemical found in pesticides. You may be exposed to nerve gas by breathing the fumes or getting it on your skin.
How do nerve agents kill?
Nerve agents attack the nervous system. All such agents function the same way resulting in cholinergic crisis: they inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh) in the synapses between nerves that control muscle contraction.
What is atropine 2 Pam chloride?
Pralidoxime (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride) or 2-PAM, usually as the chloride or iodide salts, belongs to a family of compounds called oximes that bind to organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase. It is used to treat organophosphate poisoning in conjunction with atropine and diazepam. It is a white solid.
Why is pralidoxime used with atropine?
Pralidoxime reverses muscle weakness or paralysis caused by a poison or nerve agent. The combination of atropine and pralidoxime is used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas.
What can control nerve agents?
Nerve agents are chemicals that affect the nervous system. The health effects are similar to those produced by some pesticides. The main nerve agents are the chemicals sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA) and VX. These agents are man-made and have been manufactured for use in chemical warfare.
How does a nerve agent work?
The chemicals work by disrupting the central nervous system. The body uses a molecule called acetylcholine to send messages between cellswhen an acetylcholine molecule arrives, it causes an electrical impulse to be sent. However, a nerve agent stops acetylcholinesterase from doing its job.
What is nerve gas used for?
Nerve gas, Weapon of chemical warfare that affects the transmission of nerve impulses through the nervous system. The organophosphorus nerve agents Tabun, Sarin, and Soman were developed by Germany during World War II but not used.
How does nerve agent kill you?
What is a nerve agent? A nerve agent works by interrupting the messaging from the brain down into the muscles. Sky News Science and Medical Correspondent Thomas Moore says: "The muscles become paralysed and if the breathing muscles are affected victims can die by asphyxiation."
What are the effects of nerve agents?
One of the first symptoms of nerve agent exposure is miosis - excessive constriction of the pupil of the eye. Other major symptoms include convulsions, loss of consciousness, excessive fluid secretion of the lungs, high blood pressure, raised heart rate (and then later, lowered heart rate), nausea and vomiting.
What is the most deadly nerve agent?
VX is the most potent of all nerve agents. Compared with the nerve agent sarin (also known as GB), VX is considered to be much more toxic by entry through the skin and somewhat more toxic by inhalation. It is possible that any visible VX liquid contact on the skin, unless washed off immediately, would be lethal.
"The thing about Novichok is it's very potent, so a very small amount can cause this toxidrome and cause death." When inhaled or absorbed through the skin, these agents affect muscles and nerves throughout the body, and vastly over-stimulate glands. "People die for a few reasons," Kazzi says.
How can I protect myself from sarin gas?
As quickly as possible, wash any liquid sarin from the skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will help protect people from any chemicals on their bodies. Rinse the eyes with plain water for 10 to 15 minutes if they are burning or if vision is blurred.
How does nerve gas affect the body?
When a person is exposed to a nerve agent, the nerve agent, upon entering the body, inhibits the normal actions of acetylcholinesterase; a chemical within the body whose normal function it is to break down the chemical acetylcholine. Acetylcholine causes muscular contraction.